July312014
2PM

heijitsuhiruma:

During the Bubonic Plague, doctors wore these bird-like masks to avoid becoming sick. They would fill the beaks with spices and rose petals, so they wouldn’t have to smell the rotting bodies. 

A theory during the Bubonic Plague was that the plague was caused by evil spirits. To scare the spirits away, the masks were intentionally designed to be creepy. 

(Source: creepylittleworld, via doughtier)

1PM
virtualclutter:

Hair washing and care in the the 19th century
Hair washing is something that almost every historical writer, romance or not, gets wrong. How many times have you read a story in which a heroine sinks gratefully into a sudsy tub of water and scrubs her hair–or, even worse, piles it up on her head to wash it? Or have you watched the BBC’s Manor House and other “historical reenactment” series, in which modern people invariably destroy their hair by washing using historical recipes?

Historical women kept their hair clean, but that doesn’t mean their hair was often directly washed. Those who had incredibly difficult to manage hair might employ a hairdresser to help them wash, cut, and singe (yes, singe!) their hair as often as once a month, but for most women, hair-washing was, at most, a seasonal activity.
“Why?” you might ask. “Wasn’t their hair lank, smelly, and nasty?”
And the writers who embrace ignorance as a badge of honor will say, “Well, that just goes to show that people used to be gross and dirty, and that’s why I never bother with that historical accuracy stuff!”
And then I have to restrain myself from hitting them…
The reason that hair was rarely washed has to do with the nature of soaps versus modern shampoos. Soaps are made from a lye base and are alkaline. Hair and shampoo are acidic. Washing hair in soap makes it very dry, brittle, and tangly. Men’s hair was short enough and cut often enough that using soap didn’t harm it too much and the natural oils from the scalp could re-moisturize it fairly easily after even the harshest treatment, but in an age when the average woman’s hair was down to her waist, soap could literally destroy a woman’s head of hair in fairly short order.
Instead, indirect methods of hair-cleaning were used. Women washed their hair brushes daily, and the proverbial “100 strokes” were used to spread conditioning oils from roots to tips and to remove older or excess oil and dirt. This was more time-consuming than modern washing, and this is one of the reasons that “good hair” was a class marker. The fact that only women of the upper classes could afford all the various rats, rolls, and other fake additions to bulk out their real hair was another. (An average Victorian woman of the upper middle or upper class had more apparent “hair” in her hairstyle than women I know whose unbound hair falls well below their knees.) Women rarely wore their hair lose unless it was in the process of being put up or taken down–or unless they were having a picture specifically taken of it! At night, most women braided their hair for bed. Now that my hair is well below my waist, I understand why!
The first modern shampoo was introduced in the late 1920s. Shampoos clean hair quickly and also remove modern styling products, like hairspray and gel, but the frequent hair-washing that has become common leaves longer hair brittle even with the best modern formulations. (From the 1940s to the 1960s, many if not most middle-class women had their hair washed only once a week, at their hairdresser’s, where it was restyled for the next week. The professional hairdresser stepped into the void that the maid left when domestic service became rare. Washing one’s hair daily or every other day is a very recent development.) That’s where conditioners came into play. Many people have wondered how on earth women could have nice hair by modern standards before conditioners, but conditioners are made necessary by shampoos. Well-maintained hair of the 19th century didn’t need conditioners because the oils weren’t regularly stripped from it.
Additionally, the oils made hair much more manageable than most people’s is today, which made it possible for women to obtain elaborate hairstyles using combs and pins–without modern clips or sprays–to keep their hair in place. This is why hair dressers still like to work with “day-old” hair when making elaborate hairstyles.
There were hair products like oils for women to add shine and powders meant to help brush dirt out of hair, but they weren’t in very wide use at the time. Hair “tonics”–mean to be put on the hair or taken orally to make hair shinier, thicker, or stronger–were ineffective but were readily available and widely marketed.
If you have a heroine go through something particularly nasty–such as a fall into a pond or the like–then she should wash her hair, by all means. This would be done in a tub prepared for the purpose–not in the bath–and would involve dissolving soap shavings into a water and combine them with whatever other products were desired. Then a maid would wash the woman’s hair as she leaned either forward or backward to thoroughly wet and wash her hair. Rinsing would be another stage. The hair would NEVER be piled on the head. If you have greater than waist-length hair and have ever tried to wash it in a modern-sized bathtub, you understand why no one attempted to wash her hair in a hip bath or an old, short claw foot tub! It would be almost impossible.
A quick rundown of other hair facts:
Hydrogen peroxide was used to bleach hair from 1867. Before that, trying to bleach it with soda ash and sunlight was the most a girl could do. Henna was extremely popular from the 1870s through the 1890s, especially for covering gray hair, to such an extent that gray hair became almost unseen in certain circles in England in this time. Red hair was considered ugly up until the 1860s, when the public embracing of the feminine images as presented by the aesthetic movement (Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood) gained ground, culminating in a positive rage for red hair in the 1870s to 1880s. Some truly scary metallic salt compounds were used to color hair with henna formulations by the late 19th century, often with unfortunate results.
Hair curling was popular in the 19th century and could either by achieved with rag rolls or hot tongs. Loose “sausage” rolls were the result of rag rolling. Hot tongs were used for making the “frizzled” bangs of the 1870s to 1880s–and “frizzled” they certainly were. The damage caused by the poor control of heating a curler over a gas jet or candle flame was substantial, and most women suffered burnt hair at one time or another. For this reason, a number of women chose to eschew the popular style and preserve their hair from such dangers! Permanents were first in use in the 1930s.  
(From: http://www.lydiajoyce.com/blog/?p=1022)

virtualclutter:

Hair washing and care in the the 19th century

Hair washing is something that almost every historical writer, romance or not, gets wrong. How many times have you read a story in which a heroine sinks gratefully into a sudsy tub of water and scrubs her hair–or, even worse, piles it up on her head to wash it? Or have you watched the BBC’s Manor House and other “historical reenactment” series, in which modern people invariably destroy their hair by washing using historical recipes?

Historical women kept their hair clean, but that doesn’t mean their hair was often directly washed. Those who had incredibly difficult to manage hair might employ a hairdresser to help them wash, cut, and singe (yes, singe!) their hair as often as once a month, but for most women, hair-washing was, at most, a seasonal activity.

“Why?” you might ask. “Wasn’t their hair lank, smelly, and nasty?”

And the writers who embrace ignorance as a badge of honor will say, “Well, that just goes to show that people used to be gross and dirty, and that’s why I never bother with that historical accuracy stuff!”

And then I have to restrain myself from hitting them…

The reason that hair was rarely washed has to do with the nature of soaps versus modern shampoos. Soaps are made from a lye base and are alkaline. Hair and shampoo are acidic. Washing hair in soap makes it very dry, brittle, and tangly. Men’s hair was short enough and cut often enough that using soap didn’t harm it too much and the natural oils from the scalp could re-moisturize it fairly easily after even the harshest treatment, but in an age when the average woman’s hair was down to her waist, soap could literally destroy a woman’s head of hair in fairly short order.

Instead, indirect methods of hair-cleaning were used. Women washed their hair brushes daily, and the proverbial “100 strokes” were used to spread conditioning oils from roots to tips and to remove older or excess oil and dirt. This was more time-consuming than modern washing, and this is one of the reasons that “good hair” was a class marker. The fact that only women of the upper classes could afford all the various rats, rolls, and other fake additions to bulk out their real hair was another. (An average Victorian woman of the upper middle or upper class had more apparent “hair” in her hairstyle than women I know whose unbound hair falls well below their knees.) Women rarely wore their hair lose unless it was in the process of being put up or taken down–or unless they were having a picture specifically taken of it! At night, most women braided their hair for bed. Now that my hair is well below my waist, I understand why!

The first modern shampoo was introduced in the late 1920s. Shampoos clean hair quickly and also remove modern styling products, like hairspray and gel, but the frequent hair-washing that has become common leaves longer hair brittle even with the best modern formulations. (From the 1940s to the 1960s, many if not most middle-class women had their hair washed only once a week, at their hairdresser’s, where it was restyled for the next week. The professional hairdresser stepped into the void that the maid left when domestic service became rare. Washing one’s hair daily or every other day is a very recent development.) That’s where conditioners came into play. Many people have wondered how on earth women could have nice hair by modern standards before conditioners, but conditioners are made necessary by shampoos. Well-maintained hair of the 19th century didn’t need conditioners because the oils weren’t regularly stripped from it.

Additionally, the oils made hair much more manageable than most people’s is today, which made it possible for women to obtain elaborate hairstyles using combs and pins–without modern clips or sprays–to keep their hair in place. This is why hair dressers still like to work with “day-old” hair when making elaborate hairstyles.

There were hair products like oils for women to add shine and powders meant to help brush dirt out of hair, but they weren’t in very wide use at the time. Hair “tonics”–mean to be put on the hair or taken orally to make hair shinier, thicker, or stronger–were ineffective but were readily available and widely marketed.

If you have a heroine go through something particularly nasty–such as a fall into a pond or the like–then she should wash her hair, by all means. This would be done in a tub prepared for the purpose–not in the bath–and would involve dissolving soap shavings into a water and combine them with whatever other products were desired. Then a maid would wash the woman’s hair as she leaned either forward or backward to thoroughly wet and wash her hair. Rinsing would be another stage. The hair would NEVER be piled on the head. If you have greater than waist-length hair and have ever tried to wash it in a modern-sized bathtub, you understand why no one attempted to wash her hair in a hip bath or an old, short claw foot tub! It would be almost impossible.

A quick rundown of other hair facts:

Hydrogen peroxide was used to bleach hair from 1867. Before that, trying to bleach it with soda ash and sunlight was the most a girl could do. Henna was extremely popular from the 1870s through the 1890s, especially for covering gray hair, to such an extent that gray hair became almost unseen in certain circles in England in this time. Red hair was considered ugly up until the 1860s, when the public embracing of the feminine images as presented by the aesthetic movement (Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood) gained ground, culminating in a positive rage for red hair in the 1870s to 1880s. Some truly scary metallic salt compounds were used to color hair with henna formulations by the late 19th century, often with unfortunate results.

Hair curling was popular in the 19th century and could either by achieved with rag rolls or hot tongs. Loose “sausage” rolls were the result of rag rolling. Hot tongs were used for making the “frizzled” bangs of the 1870s to 1880s–and “frizzled” they certainly were. The damage caused by the poor control of heating a curler over a gas jet or candle flame was substantial, and most women suffered burnt hair at one time or another. For this reason, a number of women chose to eschew the popular style and preserve their hair from such dangers! Permanents were first in use in the 1930s.  

(From: http://www.lydiajoyce.com/blog/?p=1022)

(via scribblesincrayon)

11AM

The Bubonic Plague in Asia

asianhistory:

beyondsilkroads:

theskaldspeaks:

asianhistory:

The Black Plague is famous in the Medieval period in Europe for having wiped out one-third of Europe’s population. But the plague was even more devastating in Asia. The Bubonic Plague also has much less artwork of how it affected Asia as opposed to Europe and Asia’s history with the Bubonic Plague isn’t as documented so it isn’t exactly clear how much it influenced culture, though it did influence history.

It is theorized that the Black Plague originated in Eurasia in the 13th and 14th centuries. Because the Mongol forces took over a large part of Asia, including China (the Yuan Dynasty), Korea (then Goryeo), Mongolia parts of India, parts of Siberia and into Tibet, Vietnam and far into the Middle East, there was a large mix of culture at one time.

It started in force when the Mongol horde was fighting against European forces in Caffa, present day Crimea, which was a seaport for Italian merchants. The Mongols besieged Caffa but started to die off from disease rather than fighting. The Mongols were forced to retreat thanks to the encroaching disease but not before hurling the bodies of their dead over the walls to spread the disease to them. From Caffa it reached Italy and spread into Europe.

The Mongolian Empire coincides with a great influx of trade from the Silk Road which only facilitated the spread of the virus into Asia. The Silk Road connected Italy to Persia, to the Middle East, to India and into China and Mongolia. While a normal virus might not have been able to spread so fast, the new opened trade routes made it very easy to spread to Asia. 

Read More

So…. the Black Death is what stopped the Mongols from taking Europe, essentially?

That’s hard to say, since it didn’t come to pass but my guess would be the Black Plague kept the Mongols from advancing further into Europe. I assume by “taking” you mean all of Europe but the Mongols were in East Europe. It depends on how you define Europe and Eurasia but the Mongols had made it as far west as Moscow and Kiev, into Turkey, into some of the Slavic countries and almost into Scandinavia.

I’d say the Black Death helped topple the Mongols but it sped up the process. When the Mongols took over land, the Great Khan would put one of his sons or a relative or someone he trusted into positions of power in those states which became known as khanates. The “lesser” khans would then be the regents to the Great Khan. 

The Mongols then faced what had happened to the Roman Empire where people would make power plays or not get along with the Great Khan. Towards the end, it was probably more of an Empire in name only. With the Black Plague, it created great shortages in manpower so soldiers would die off, guards would die off and regular people would die off. What that did was it weakened some of the khanates. For instance, Yuan (China) had a bad economy from it and some khanates started to fall apart or collapsed from within. The result became that more and more khanates became more independent. So countries like Bulgaria, Crimea, Iran, Iraq and the various -stan countries started to become their own countries and not part of the Empire. 

But you could see the Black Plague as having stopped the Mongols, yes. Although it’s my personal belief that an Empire of that size with so much territory is only as effective as long as its leaders and regents are nice to each other, the Plague made the Mongols pull back and have to deal with problems of their infrastructure. It probably wouldn’t have helped that the Great Khan put his family members in charge of territories. If European history has taught us anything it’s that wars of succession tend to be the most bitter. If the Great Khan had died, imagine so many territories with their own armies and forces and resources are now going to vie for power to be the Great Khan. I believe, and I could be completely wrong since it never came to pass, that had the Empire continued to expand unchecked, the Empire would have broken apart and split into warring nation-states all trying to be Great Khan and command authority over the others.

I suggest they read The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Kahn Saves His Empire, and Genghis Kahn and the Making of the Modern world, which both explore these topics in layman writing. 

There was a female Mongolian representative/diplomat in Paris, France but as I recall from The Secret History, that didn’t end up being well received in France.

(via doughtier)

10AM
abellandapomegranate:

cearbhal: 

puszcza:

Ontleding des menschelyken lichaams…, Amsterdam, 1690. Copperplate engraving with etching. National Library of Medicine.
Govard Bidloo (anatomist), Gérard de Lairesse (artist)

i love everything about this picture

I have so many questions about this picture.  But.  Just.  Damn.

abellandapomegranate:

cearbhal:

puszcza:

Ontleding des menschelyken lichaams…, Amsterdam, 1690. Copperplate engraving with etching. National Library of Medicine.

Govard Bidloo (anatomist), Gérard de Lairesse (artist)

i love everything about this picture

I have so many questions about this picture.  But.  Just.  Damn.

(via thetrollingchaos)

July302014
3PM
ifuckedmartinfreeman:

barnacling:

racketstory:

cumaeansibyl:

suicideblonde:

Today would have been Mr Rogers’ 84th birthday.  Thanks for showing me how to rock a cardigan and always been a kind neighbor.  

true story:
one time some dudes stole mr. rogers’s car, and it got into the news, like you’d expect
the next day the car was back where he’d left it with a note that said “we’re so sorry, we never would’ve taken it if we’d known it was yours”
I like to think they recognized this as a sign from god and turned their lives around
another true story: mr. rogers lobbied in favor of vcrs back when the tv and movie industries were against them, because he wanted families to be able to record shows and watch them together
he was always, always thinking about children, letting them know it’s okay to be sad or scared or mad and how to deal with it, letting them know there’s at least one person in the world who loves them just the way they are
and no matter who you were, no matter why you crossed his path, he wanted to know about your life and understand you and be your friend
I believe he is a for-real saint and I wish I could be more like him but it’s okay, I know he loves me just the way I am

Another true story: one time he received a letter from a blind girl who mentioned that she gets nervous sometimes that he’d forget to feed the fish.  From that moment on, he made some comment outloud about how he was feeding the fish so she and any other blind viewers would know that he hadn’t forgotten. 

Always reblog Mr. Rogers.

i’m actually crying you don’t understand

ifuckedmartinfreeman:

barnacling:

racketstory:

cumaeansibyl:

suicideblonde:

Today would have been Mr Rogers’ 84th birthday.  Thanks for showing me how to rock a cardigan and always been a kind neighbor.  

true story:

one time some dudes stole mr. rogers’s car, and it got into the news, like you’d expect

the next day the car was back where he’d left it with a note that said “we’re so sorry, we never would’ve taken it if we’d known it was yours”

I like to think they recognized this as a sign from god and turned their lives around

another true story: mr. rogers lobbied in favor of vcrs back when the tv and movie industries were against them, because he wanted families to be able to record shows and watch them together

he was always, always thinking about children, letting them know it’s okay to be sad or scared or mad and how to deal with it, letting them know there’s at least one person in the world who loves them just the way they are

and no matter who you were, no matter why you crossed his path, he wanted to know about your life and understand you and be your friend

I believe he is a for-real saint and I wish I could be more like him but it’s okay, I know he loves me just the way I am

Another true story: one time he received a letter from a blind girl who mentioned that she gets nervous sometimes that he’d forget to feed the fish.  From that moment on, he made some comment outloud about how he was feeding the fish so she and any other blind viewers would know that he hadn’t forgotten. 

Always reblog Mr. Rogers.

i’m actually crying you don’t understand

(via chickletgirl)

2PM
zathros:

From Lisa’s demonstration at IMATS Pasadena January 2013.
Airbrush and handwork.
No Photoshop all in camera.
Artist: Lisa BerczelModel: Michael Foster 

zathros:

From Lisa’s demonstration at IMATS Pasadena January 2013.

Airbrush and handwork.

No Photoshop all in camera.

Artist: Lisa Berczel
Model: Michael Foster 

(via doughtier)

1PM
beatonna:

nimbuspub:

 

Has your cat ever walked across your keyboard? Well, it’s not a new problem. Medieval book historian Erik Kwakkel recently Tweeted this photo of a 15th century book with… you guessed it… cat paw prints in ink on the pages! We’re part of a long and glorious historical movement, friends. (Source: Dr. Marty Becker)


Ah this is the best thing!  Those medieval cats!  
Cats gon’ be cats

beatonna:

nimbuspub:

 

Has your cat ever walked across your keyboard? Well, it’s not a new problem. Medieval book historian Erik Kwakkel recently Tweeted this photo of a 15th century book with… you guessed it… cat paw prints in ink on the pages! We’re part of a long and glorious historical movement, friends. (Source: Dr. Marty Becker)

Ah this is the best thing!  Those medieval cats!  

Cats gon’ be cats

11AM
calumet412:

Co-ed party, University of Chicago, 1900, Chicago.
The girls even get to wear the boys hats. Scandal.

calumet412:

Co-ed party, University of Chicago, 1900, Chicago.

The girls even get to wear the boys hats. Scandal.

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